Any relevant reports that have been included in the areas below have been culled from PubMed, an online service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. Numerous diseases, such as anorexia, emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple . There are some negative effects of cannabis use other than addiction, most of . can also be treated with cannabis extracts containing THC, or CBD, or with Sativex. Jan 3, 8 Medical Conditions That CBD Can Help Treat in recent years concerning CBD's medical usefulness, including some diseases and ailments.
be treated of CBD by conditions are: Some the that can
The induction of status epilepticus-like activity by CB1 receptor antagonists was reversible and could be overcome by maximal concentrations of CB1 agonists. Cannabis use is common in patients with bipolar disorder, and anecdotal reports suggest that some patients use marijuana to alleviate symptoms of both mania and depression.
The effect of cannabinoids on schizophrenia is controversial. Neuropsychological results in THC-intoxicated normal volunteers exhibit strong similarities with data acquired from patients suffering from productive schizophrenic psychoses, as regards disturbances in internal regulation of perceptual processes. Data from experimental-psychological tests show that personality changes generated by schizophrenia progression are comparable to psychopathological phenomenon due to cannabis intoxication.
This argues against a distinct schizophrenia-like psychosis caused by cannabis. The group receiving the CB1 antagonist did not differ from the group receiving placebo on any outcome measure. CBD causes antipsychotic effects. Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD is a term for severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful, highly traumatic events.
Cannabinoids are believed to help in such cases. AMtreated animals showed decreased shock-induced reinstatement of fear. SRI blocked the effects of OL, suggesting that endogenous anandamide plays a facilitator role in extinction through a CB1 receptor mechanism of action. However, upon repeated stress or acute severe stress, CB1 receptor deficiency causes persistent behavioral inhibition. Repeated bell stress seemed to cause a cumulative fear in CB1 receptor knockout mice.
CB1 receptor gene polymorphism is known to modify transcription of the gene. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the presence of two long alleles, with more than 16 repeated AAT trinucleotides in the CNR1 gene, was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression. CBD, and some derivatives, were found to cause a selective anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze, within a limited range of doses.
The effects of marijuana on human sleep patterns were noticed long ago. Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus. In animal experiments, after methacholine-induced or exercise-induced bronchospasm, marijuana caused a prompt improvement of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation.
The daily use of THC was not associated with clinical tolerance. Maximal bronchodilatation was achieved more rapidly with salbutamol, but at 1 hour both drugs were equally effective.
No cardiovascular or mood disturbance was detected, and plasma total cannabinoids at 15 minutes were not detected by radioimmunoassay. The mode of action of THC differed from that of sympathomimetic drugs. In another study, THC induced sympathetic stimulation and parasympathetic inhibition of cardiovascular control pathways.
The peak heart rate rise after THC was attenuated by atropine and by propranolol, and nearly abolished by atropine-propranolol pretreatment. With repetitive dosing supine bradycardia and decreased blood pressure with tolerance to orthostatic hypotension were observed.
A number of studies suggest that there is a correlative, but not necessarily causal, relationship between glaucoma and systemic hypertension. Ocular hypertension OHT refers to any situation in which intraocular pressure is higher than normal, and is the most important risk factor for glaucoma. In contrast, noladin ether decreased IOP immediately after topical administration, and no initial IOP increase was observed.
CB2 mRNA was undetectable. Ocular toxicity was seen after THC treatment, consisting of conjunctival erythema and chemosis as well as corneal opacification. Although these changes also occurred with marijuana extract, their intensity was much reduced. In contrast, no ocular toxicity was apparent during administration of plant cannabinoids other than THC. The results indicate that THC may have value as a hypotonizing ocular drug.
The intensity and duration of the arterial and ocular pressure responses to THC were greater in hypertensives than in normotensive patients; the changes in ocular pressure paralleled the changes in blood pressure in glaucoma patients. The antiproliferative action of cannabinoids on cancer cells was first noticed in the s. Since then cannabinoids were found to act on various cancer cell lines, through various mechanisms.
Moreover, cannabinoid challenge decreased the efficiency of glioma stem-like cells to initiate glioma formation in vivo. Activation of these receptors decreased growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, and increased apoptosis, of melanomas in mice. These effects were prevented by blockade of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor or by pharmacologic inhibition of ceramide synthesis de novo.
THC inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in vitro, decreased tumor-cell Ki67 immunostaining and prolonged the survival time of two of the patients.
Many drugs used today can cause addiction and are misused and abused, for example opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cholinergic agonists, ketamine, , dopaminergic agonists, amphetamines, and others. Nevertheless they are still an important part of our pharmacopeia. Marijuana was used for centuries as a medicinal plant, but during the last century, because of its abuse and addictive potential it was taken out of clinical practice.
Now, we believe that its constituents and related compounds should be brought back to clinical use. The endocannabinoid system is a very complex one and regulates numerous processes, in parallel with other wellknown systems, such as the adrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic systems. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Dialogues Clin Neurosci v. Kogan , MSc Natalya M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Cannabis sativa L. Abstract Las preparaciones de Cannabis sativa L. Addiction to canabis, and the influence of cannabis on addiction to other substances Marijuana may produce mild dependence in humans.
Negative effects of cannabis other than addiction There are some negative effects of cannabis use other than addiction, most of them related to alterations of attentional and cognitive functions or other neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Therapeutic uses of cannabinoids Obesity, anorexia, emesis Cannabis has been known for centuries to increase appetite and food consumption. Pain Cannabis has been used for millennia as a pain-relieving substance.
Multiple sclerosis, neuroprotection, inflammation Inflammation, autoimmune response, demyelination, and axonal damage are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy Parkinson's disease PD is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , depression, anxiety, insomnia Cannabis use is common in patients with bipolar disorder, and anecdotal reports suggest that some patients use marijuana to alleviate symptoms of both mania and depression.
Asthma, cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the airway occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus. Cancer The antiproliferative action of cannabinoids on cancer cells was first noticed in the s. Conclusion Many drugs used today can cause addiction and are misused and abused, for example opiates, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cholinergic agonists, ketamine, , dopaminergic agonists, amphetamines, and others.
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Dronabinol has also been found to help improve food intake and prevent weight loss in patients with HIV. Research is still being done on this drug.
Like many other drugs, the prescription cannabinoids, dronabinol and nabilone, can cause side effects and complications. Some people have trouble with increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure especially when standing up , dizziness or lightheadedness, and fainting. They can also worsen depression, mania, or other mental illness. Some patients taking nabilone in studies reported hallucinations.
The drugs may increase some effects of sedatives, sleeping pills, or alcohol, such as sleepiness and poor coordination. Patients have also reported problems with dry mouth and trouble with recent memory.
People who have had emotional illnesses, paranoia, or hallucinations may find their symptoms are worse when taking cannabinoid drugs. Talk to your doctor about what you should expect when taking one of these drugs. The American Cancer Society supports the need for more scientific research on cannabinoids for cancer patients, and recognizes the need for better and more effective therapies that can overcome the often debilitating side effects of cancer and its treatment.
The Society also believes that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Administration imposes numerous conditions on researchers and deters scientific study of cannabinoids. Federal officials should examine options consistent with federal law for enabling more scientific study on marijuana.
The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team. Our team is made up of doctors and master's-prepared nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.
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March 4, Last Revised: For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy. Marijuana and Cancer Marijuana is the name given to the dried buds and leaves of varieties of the Cannabis sativa plant, which can grow wild in warm and tropical climates throughout the world and be cultivated commercially.
Cannabinoids in health and disease
Jul 27, Cannabidiol (CBD) may have some health benefits, and it may also pose . The authors noted that current treatments for these disorders can. The FDA recently approved Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a. Dec 15, But some medical marijuana is specially grown to have less of the Other conditions it might treat are Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's.