Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such . Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't.
Diabetes? What Symptoms Are of Causes the and
Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. In the United States, the estimated number of people over 18 years of age with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes is The figure represents between Without ongoing, careful management, diabetes can lead to a buildup of sugars in the blood, which can increase the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart disease.
Different kinds of diabetes can occur, and managing the condition depends on the type. Not all forms of diabetes stem from a person being overweight or leading an inactive lifestyle. In fact, some are present from childhood. Also known as juvenile diabetes, this type occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. People with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did.
This is the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and it has strong links with obesity. This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body can become less sensitive to insulin.
Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth. Click here to learn more about type I diabetes. The prediabetes level means that blood glucose is higher than usual but not so high as to constitute diabetes.
People with prediabetes are, however, at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although they do not usually experience the symptoms of full diabetes. If a doctor identifies that a person has prediabetes, they will recommend that the individual makes healthful changes that can ideally stop the progression to type 2 diabetes.
Losing weight and having a more healthful diet can often help prevent the disease. Doctors do not know the exact causes of type I diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, also known as insulin resistance , has clearer causes. Insulin allows the glucose from a person's food to access the cells in their body to supply energy. Insulin resistance is usually a result of the following cycle:.
In the case of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance takes place gradually. This is why doctors often recommend making lifestyle changes in an attempt to slow or reverse this cycle. Learn more about the function of insulin by clicking here. If a doctor diagnoses a person with type 2 diabetes, they will often recommend making lifestyle changes to support weight loss and overall health.
A doctor may refer a person with diabetes or prediabetes to a nutritionist. A specialist can help a person with diabetes lead an active, balanced lifestyle and manage the condition. People can also take steps to reduce their body mass index BMI , which can help some people with type 2 diabetes manage the condition without medication.
Learn how to manage and treat diabetes by clicking here. People with type I diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes may need to inject or inhale insulin to keep their blood sugar levels from becoming too high. Various types of insulin are available, and most are grouped by how long their effect lasts.
There are rapid, regular, intermediate, and long-acting insulins. Some people will use a long-acting insulin injection to maintain consistently low blood sugar levels. Some people may use short-acting insulin or a combination of insulin types. Whatever the type, a person will usually check their blood glucose levels using a fingerstick.
This method of checking blood sugar levels involves using a special, portable machine called a glucometer. A person with type I diabetes will then use the reading of their blood sugar level to determine how much insulin they need. Like the other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes happens when the hormone insulin can't efficiently move sugar glucose into the body's cells so it can be used as fuel.
In gestational diabetes, the body does not respond well to insulin, unless insulin can be produced or provided in larger amounts.
In most women, the disorder goes away when the pregnancy ends, but women who have had gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later. Diabetes initially might not cause any symptoms. It can sometimes be caught early with a routine blood test before a person develops symptoms.
People with diabetes also have an increased susceptibility to infections, especially yeast Candida infections. When the amount of insulin in the blood stream is too low, extremely high blood sugar levels can lead to dangerous complications.
The body can become too acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Or the blood sugar level gets so high, the person becomes severely dehydrated. It's called hyperosmolar syndrome. The symptoms of these complications include confused thinking, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and even seizures and coma. In some cases, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar syndrome is the first sign that a person has diabetes.
The treatment of diabetes also can produce symptoms. Too much glucose-lowering medicine, relative to dietary intake, can lead to a blood sugar level that has dropped too low called hypoglycemia.
Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:. You can correct hypoglycemia by eating or drinking something that has carbohydrates. This raises your blood sugar level. Atherosclerosis — Atherosclerosis is fat buildup in the artery walls. This can impair blood flow to all parts of the body.
The heart, brain, and legs are affected most often. Retinopathy — Tiny blood vessels in the retina the part of the eye that sees light can become damaged by high blood sugar. The damage can block blood flow to the retina, or can lead to bleeding into the retina. Both reduce the retina's ability to see light. Caught early, retinopathy damage can be minimized by tightly controlling blood sugar and using laser therapy.
Untreated retinopathy can lead to blindness. Neuropathy — This is another term for nerve damage. The most common type is peripheral neuropathy, which affects nerves in the feet and hands. The nerves to the legs are damaged first, causing pain and numbness in the feet. This can advance to cause symptoms in the legs and hands. Damage to the nerves that control digestion, sexual function, and urination can also occur. Foot problems — Any sores, injuries, or blisters on the feet can lead to the following complications:.
If peripheral neuropathy causes numbness, a person may not feel any irritation or injury that occurs on the foot. The skin can break down and form an ulcer, and the ulcer can get infected. Blood circulation can be poor, leading to slow healing of any foot injuries.
Left untreated, a simple sore can become very large and get infected. If medical treatment cannot heal the sore, an amputation may be required. Nephropathy — This refers to damage to the kidneys. This complication is more likely if blood sugars remain elevated and high blood pressure is not treated aggressively.
Fasting plasma glucose FPG test. A blood sample is taken in the morning after you fast overnight. Oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. Your blood sugar is measured two hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose. Random blood glucose test. This test measures your average blood glucose level over the prior two to three months.
Diabetes is diagnosed if the hemoglobin A1c level is 6. Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong illness. Usually, type 2 diabetes is also life-long.
However, people with type 2 diabetes can sometimes restore their blood sugar levels to normal just by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and losing weight. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after childbirth. However, women with gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations:. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy a process called metabolism.
Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in the stomach or manufactured in the liver to the cells where it is used muscles or where it is stored fat.
Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy.
When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered.
An overview of diabetes types and treatments
Over a third of people with type 2 diabetes are unaware they have the disease and are not receiving the required treatment because, for many people, early. While it can lead to dangerous complications, diabetes is manageable. There are different types of diabetes with varying effects. Read on to. Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition.