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Industry representatives say Facebook and Instagram have been particularly aggressive in suspending the social media accounts of cannabis-related companies, and Apple has suspended certain cannabis-related apps from its App Store as well. Thiel was an early investor in Facebook, which acquired Instagram in But faced with the legal gray area in which the legal cannabis industry operates, Silicon Valley has thus far chosen to play it safe given that U.
Our teams review these reports rapidly and will remove the content if there is a violation. For Hodas and Dixie Elixirs—which produces everything from candy bars to beverages to topical creams, all infused with cannabis—the case might seem open-and-shut. Dixie Elixirs used its social media pages to engage customers with its brand, but strictly avoided any promotion of the sale of cannabis products or imagery that would run afoul of community guidelines.
It also placed an age restriction on its page, Hodas says. There is insufficient data to draw strong conclusions about the safety of medical cannabis. Other effects can include impaired short-term memory; impaired motor coordination; altered judgment; and paranoia or psychosis at high doses. The amount of cannabis normally used for medicinal purposes is not believed to cause any permanent cognitive impairment in adults, though long-term treatment in adolescents should be weighed carefully as they are more susceptible to these impairments.
Withdrawal symptoms are rarely a problem with controlled medical administration of cannabinoids. The ability to drive vehicles or to operate machinery may be impaired until a tolerance is developed. Acute effects may include anxiety and panic, impaired attention, and memory while intoxicated , an increased risk of psychotic symptoms, and possibly increased risk of accidents if a person drives a motor vehicle while intoxicated.
There have been few reports of symptoms lasting longer. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services , there were , emergency room visits associated with cannabis use in These statistics include visits in which the patient was treated for a condition induced by or related to recent cannabis use. The drug use must be "implicated" in the emergency department visit, but does not need to be the direct cause of the visit.
Most of the illicit drug emergency room visits involved multiple drugs. Effects of chronic use may include bronchitis , a cannabis dependence syndrome, and subtle impairments of attention and memory. These deficits persist while chronically intoxicated.
There has been a limited amount of studies that have looked at the effects of smoking cannabis on the respiratory system. Cannabis smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke,  and over fifty known carcinogens have been identified in cannabis smoke,  including nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycylic hydrocarbons, including benz[a]pyrene.
Evidence for causing these cancers is mixed concerning heavy, long-term use. In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when compared with those of tobacco. There is serious suspicion among cardiologists, spurring research but falling short of definitive proof, that cannabis use has the potential to contribute to cardiovascular disease.
If cannabis arteritis turns out to be a distinct clinical entity, it might be the consequence of vasoconstrictor activity observed from deltaTHC and deltaTHC. Research in these events is complicated because cannabis is often used in conjunction with tobacco, and drugs such as alcohol and cocaine. Cannabis usually causes no tolerance or withdrawal symptoms except in heavy users. In a survey of heavy users The rate goes up to one in six among those who begin use as adolescents, and one-quarter to one-half of those who use it daily according to a NIDA review.
A literature review found that exposure to marijuana had biologically-based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and was "associated with diseases of the liver particularly with co-existing hepatitis C , lungs, heart, and vasculature". A systematic review evaluated published studies of the acute and long-term cognitive effects of cannabis. THC intoxication is well established to impair cognitive functioning on an acute basis, including effects on the ability to plan, organize, solve problems, make decisions, and control impulses.
The extent of this impact may be greater in novice users, and paradoxically, those habituated to high-level ingestion may have reduced cognition during withdrawal.
Studies of long-term effects on cognition have provided conflicting results, with some studies finding no difference between long-term abstainers and never-users and others finding long-term deficits. The discrepancies between studies may reflect greater long-term effects among heavier users relative to occasional users, and greater duration of effect among those with heavy use as adolescents compared to later in life.
Exposure to THC can cause acute transient psychotic symptoms in healthy individuals and people with schizophrenia.
A meta analysis concluded that cannabis use reduced the average age of onset of psychosis by 2. The genus Cannabis contains two species which produce useful amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , which are listed as Schedule I medicinal plants in the US;  a third species, Cannabis ruderalis , has few psychogenic properties. The most psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant is tetrahydrocannabinol or deltatetrahydrocannabinol, commonly known as THC.
CB1 and CB2 are the primary cannabinoid receptors responsible for several of the effects of cannabinoids, although other receptors may play a role as well.
CB1 receptors are found in very high levels in the brain and are thought to be responsible for psychoactive effects. The low bioavailability is largely attributed to significant first-pass metabolism in the liver and erratic absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Due to the poor bioavailability of oral preparations, alternative routes of administration have been studied, including sublingual and rectal.
These alternative formulations maximize bioavailability and reduce first-pass metabolism. Like cannabinoid absorption, distribution is also dependent on route of administration. Smoking and inhalation of vaporized cannabis have better absorption than do other routes of administration, and therefore also have more predictable distribution. It distributes rapidly to highly vascularized organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys, as well as to various glands.
Low levels can be detected in the brain, testes, and unborn fetuses, all of which are protected from systemic circulation via barriers. DeltaTHC is the primary molecule responsible for the effects of cannabis. Ingestion of edible cannabis products lead to a slower onset of effect than the inhalation of it because the THC travels to the liver first through the blood before it travels to the rest of the body.
Inhaled cannabis can result in THC going directly to the brain, where it then travels from the brain back to the liver in recirculation for metabolism. Smoking has been the means of administration of cannabis for many users, but it is not suitable for the use of cannabis as a medicine. The US Food and Drug Administration FDA has not approved smoked cannabis for any condition or disease, as it deems that evidence is lacking concerning safety and efficacy.
Since ancient humans used hemp seed as food, it was quite natural for them to also discover the medicinal properties of the plant. He recommended the substance for many ailments, including constipation, gout, rheumatism, and absent-mindedness. The Ebers Papyrus c. Surviving texts from ancient India confirm that cannabis' psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for treating a variety of illnesses and ailments, including insomnia, headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, and pain, including during childbirth.
The Ancient Greeks used cannabis to dress wounds and sores on their horses,  and in humans, dried leaves of cannabis were used to treat nose bleeds, and cannabis seeds were used to expel tapeworms. In the medieval Islamic world , Arabic physicians made use of the diuretic , antiemetic , antiepileptic , anti-inflammatory , analgesic and antipyretic properties of Cannabis sativa , and used it extensively as medication from the 8th to 18th centuries.
Cannabis seeds may have been used for food, rituals or religious practices in ancient Europe and China. Widely cultivated strains of cannabis, such as "Afghani" or "Hindu Kush", are indigenous to the Pakistan and Afghanistan regions, while "Durban Poison" is native to Africa.
The use of cannabis in medicine began to decline by the end of the 19th century, due to difficulty in controlling dosages and the rise in popularity of synthetic and opium -derived drugs. In the United States, the medical use of cannabis further declined with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of , which imposed new regulations and fees on physicians prescribing cannabis. Pharmacopeia in , and officially banned for any use with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act of Cannabis began to attract renewed interest as medicine in the s and s, in particular due to its use by cancer and AIDS patients who reported relief from the effects of chemotherapy and wasting syndrome.
The use of cannabis, at least as fiber, has been shown to go back at least 10, years in Taiwan. In Mexico , THC content of medical cannabis is limited to one percent. Article 2 provides for the following, in reference to Schedule IV drugs:. A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.
The convention thus allows countries to outlaw cannabis for all non-research purposes but lets nations choose to allow use for medical and scientific purposes if they believe total prohibition is not the most appropriate means of protecting health and welfare. The convention requires that states that permit the production or use of medical cannabis must operate a licensing system for all cultivators, manufacturers, and distributors and ensure that the total cannabis market of the state shall not exceed that required "for medical and scientific purposes".
In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 33 states, four out of five permanently inhabited U. In December , however, the Rohrabacher—Farr amendment was signed into law, prohibiting the Justice Department from prosecuting individuals acting in accordance with state medical cannabis laws. The method of obtaining medical cannabis varies by region and by legislation. In the US, most consumers grow their own or buy it from cannabis dispensaries in states where it is legal.
In the United States, health insurance companies may not pay for a medical marijuana prescription as the Food and Drug Administration must approve any substance for medicinal purposes.
Before this can happen, the FDA must first permit the study of the medical benefits and drawbacks of the substance, which it has not done since it was placed on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act in Therefore, all expenses incurred fulfilling a medical marijuana prescription will possibly be incurred as out-of-pocket.
Organizations that have issued statements in opposition to the legalization of medical cannabis include the American Academy of Pediatrics ,  American Psychiatric Association ,  and American Society of Addiction Medicine. The American Medical Association  and American College of Physicians  do not take a position on the legalization of medical cannabis, but have called for the Schedule I classification of cannabis to be reviewed. The American Academy of Family Physicians similarly does not take a position, but does support rescheduling in order to facilitate research.
As an antiemetic , these medications are usually used when conventional treatment for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy fail to work. Nabiximols is used for treatment of spasticity associated with MS when other therapies have not worked, and when an initial trial demonstrates "meaningful improvement".
Relative to inhaled consumption, peak concentration of oral THC is delayed, and it may be difficult to determine optimal dosage because of variability in patient absorption.
In , Albert Lockhart and Manley West began studying the health effects of traditional cannabis use in Jamaican communities. They developed, and in gained permission to market, the pharmaceutical "Canasol", one of the first cannabis extracts.
Medical cannabis research includes any medical research on using cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition. For reasons including increased popular support of cannabis use, a trend of cannabis legalization , and the perception of medical usefulness, more scientists are doing medical cannabis research.
Medical cannabis is unusually broad as a treatment for many conditions, each of which has its own state of research. Similarly, various countries conduct and respond to medical cannabis research in different ways. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Cannabis Arts Culture. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. Yet, in other countries the use of cannabis is tolerated e.
These wandering legalities of cannabisare not rootless and can be best understood with cultural and historical perspectives in mind. As anthropologists and historians have revealed, cultural traditions, climatic differences, medicinal practices, as well as historical, political, legal and economic forces play a large part in the type of role cannabis has in different societies and cultures.
To begin, this paper gives a brief description of the historical origins of the cultural psychoactive uses of cannabis.
Before continuing with further cultural uses of psychoactive cannabis, a description of the climatic growing conditions and the potency levels of psychoactive cannabis is given in order to emphasize that environmental conditions play a significant part in the cultural use of the cannabis plant.
Following this is a discussion of the various cultural uses of cannabis in regions such as India, Africa, Brazil and Jamaica. The second half of the paper then discusses the North American and specifically the Canadian cultural context of the use of the cannabis plant, including an examination of the economic, political and legal factors that have influenced its use. It illustrates that Canadian society did not use cannabis for psychoactive purposes until the middle of the 20 th century.
The paper concludes by emphasizing that since Canadians have recently been exposed to different cultural uses of psychoactive cannabis, knowledge of other cultural uses of cannabis is important for future policy development of the cannabis issue in Canada. Historical Origins and Uses of Cannabis. It is difficult to say exactly where and when the cannabisplant originated. Some believe its origins were in central Asia. Others however, believe that because of its extensive medical and agricultural documentation in ancient Chinese literature, the cannabis plant actually originated in China.
Archaeologists discovered an ancient village in China, containing the earliest known record of the use of the cannabisplant. This village dates back over 10 years to the Stone Age. Amongst the debris of this village, archaeologists found small pots with patterns of twisted hemp fibre decorating them.
Eventually, when the process of extraction was developed, the Chinese realized the psychoactive use of the oil resin from the cannabis seed and applied this to their medicinal practices.
Since Chinese medicine has its origins in magic, this book provides records of the Chinese using marijuana both in their medicinal and ritual practices. It was used in cases involving menstrual fatigue, gout, rheumatism, malaria, constipation, and absentmindedness, and to anaesthetize patients during surgical operations. Only substances filled with yang, the invigorating principle in nature, were looked upon favourably.
However, by the 8 th century A. This non-adoption of cannabis as a hallucinogen can be explained on a cultural basis. Opium is an Euphorica, a sedative of mental activity. Cannabis, on the other hand, is a Phantastica, a hallucinogenic drug that causes mental exhilaration and nervous excitation. It distorts the sense of time and space. Overuse may cause rapid movements… these effects were duly noted by Chinese physicians at least from the second century A.
They were in every respect inconsistent with the philosophy and traditions of Chinese life. The discontinuation of the use of cannabis by the Chinese can perhaps simply be referred to its unsuitability to the Chinese temperament and traditions. The conformity of an individual in Chinese society is regulated by a culturally instilled sense of shame.
The Confucian personality is a shame-oriented personality. The adoption of opium and the non-adoption of cannabis reflect a behavioural response to traditional Chinese society.
The opium user was more likely to remain pacific and sedated, and thus not challenge social norms. Cannabis, with its stimulating of erratic effects, was likely to induce acts that might bring shame upon the user or his family. Thus, while the psychoactive properties of cannabis have been cited as used by the Chinese, the value of cannabis in China was primarily as a fibre source. There was, however, a continuous record of hemp cultivation in China from Neolithic times, suggesting that cannabis use may have originated in China, rather than in central Asia  where the origination of cannabis has long been attributed.
Many western scholars attribute the origins of cannabis to the Scythians around the 7 th century B. According to Herodotus, a Greek historian who lived in the fifth century B. The Scythians would throw cannabis seeds onto the heated stones to create a thick vapour that they would inhale and become intoxicated.
This first ethnographic description of ancient peoples inhaling marijuana as a psychotropic stimulant was further confirmed by a Russian archaeologist, Professor S.
Rudenko in , who discovered that marijuana was also used by the Scythians in everyday life. The female Russian mummy was so well preserved that intricate tattoos were found on her left arm, leading the archaeologists to conclude that she was both a Scythian princess and a priestess.
The hallucinations and mystical insights experienced by those who consumed these plants convinced the ancient worshippers that they had come into contact with the divine.
The Sumerians believed that the daily worship of their personal deity assisted them in earning a living and being courageous in battle. There are many contested theories of the appearance of the use of cannabis by peoples of the Near East in the Old Testament. These theories are often challenged as being quite obscure with no clear history. All vices are veiled from view, and that is true especially of the vices of the East. Where they are alluded to at all, it is in cryptic, subtle, witty and allegorical terms.
Therefore, if we are to discover them, we must be prepared to look below the surface of the text. And all [they of] the land came to a wood, and dropped; but no man put his hand to his mouth: But Jonathan heard not when his father charged the people with the oath; wherefore he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand and dipped it in an honey-comb , and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened.
The Syrian account says that Jonathan dipped his rod in a field of flower-stalks with resinous exudation, which would be produced in times of heat — similar to the behaviour of cannabis resin. Like Creighton, commentators such as Sula Benet, Sara Bentowa and Chris Bennett also delve below the surface of the Biblical text to argue that the word cannabis was actually borrowed by the Scythians from Semitic languages such as Hebrew.
Properties of the Production of Cannabis. In addition, it is necessary to clarify that there are different classes of psychoactive cannabis preparations, as well as various cultural names for each class. Climatic Conditions for Cannabis Production. Cannabis is like a weed and will grow almost anywhere. However, its optimum resin-producing environment is in very hot climates where cannabis protects itself from death by producing as much resin as is needed in order to trap in water.
When raised in hot, dry climates, resin is produced in great quantities and fibre quality is poor. In countries with mild, humid weather, less resin is produced and the fibre is stronger and more durable.
Classes of Psychoactive Cannabis Preparations . The cannabis plant has two significant varieties that were catalogued in by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. The most common is cannabis sativa , which is gangly, loose-branched, can reach a height of twenty feet and is productive of fibre and inferior seed oil.
Cannabis indica grows to three or four feet in height, is densely branched, shaped like a pyramid and yields higher quantities of intoxicating resin. Each potency level has a different name dependent upon cultural language. The flowering leaves of ripe male and female hemp plants secrete a sticky resin which is the source of all, or almost all, of the THC deltatetrahydrocannabinol, the ingredient which reproduces in man all the mind-altering effects that follow smoking or eating marijuana or hashish in cannabis.
In this form of cannabis use, the leaves and sometimes the stems and even seeds or entire plants are ground up and smoked or baked into cookies. The potency varies with the THC content. Bhang is a little different as it usually involves only leaves, is drunk and is usually somewhat richer in THC than North American marijuana.
The dried flowering tops of cultivated plants are covered with THC as a result of not having released their seeds. Outside of India, it is virtually unknown. Almost all of the THC is contained in the resin on the leaves near the flowering tops. The resin is scraped off of the leaves, pressed into blocks, and usually smoked. Hashish is about 10 times as powerful as marijuana and is the only cannabis derivative that has the capacity to produce hallucinogenic and psychotomimetic effects with any regularity.
An Indian pharmacologist, Chopra, has described another method of harvesting charas: Sometimes men, naked, or dressed in leather suits or jackets, passed through the fields of cannabis sativa rubbing and crushing roughly against the plants early in the morning just after sunrise when a fall of dew has taken place.
The resinous material that sticks on is then scraped off them and forms the charas resin of commerce. Other common names for cannabis include grifa in Spain and Mexico; anascha in Russia; kendir in Tartar; konop in Bulgaria and konope in Poland; momea in Tibet; kanbun in Chaldea; dawamesk in Algeria; liamba or maconha in Brazil; and bust or sheera in Egypt.
Cultural Uses of Cannabis. For Members of the Brahmin caste, cannabis was unequivocally sanctioned for social use in order to help achieve the contemplative spiritual life they strive to lead. Bhang was also a symbol of hospitality. A host who failed to make such a gesture was despised as being miserly and misanthropic. Cannabis is also renowned in India for its use in the Tantric religious yoga sex acts.
About an hour before carrying out the yoga ritual, the devotee would put a bowl of bhang before him and after reciting a mantra to the goddess Kali, the devotee would drink the bhang potion. This was fuelled by bhang, which heightens the experience. The Hindu mystics who smoked charas in the prayer ceremony called Puja especially favoured charas. In Indian folk medicine, hemp boughs were thrown into fires in order to overcome evil forces. Sushruta, a legendary physician of ancient India, recommended it to relieve congestion, a remedy for diarrhoea and as an ingredient in a cure for fevers.
Cannabis must be looked upon as one of the most important drugs of Indian material medica. Despite the fact that the Indian Hemp Drug Commission rejected total prohibition of cannabis because of its importance in medicine as well as in cultural rituals and traditions, in the British Indian Government passed Act XII to discourage the habitual use of cannabis and its use as an intoxicant.
The Act requested that state governments improve their local excise systems. Later in the Dangerous Drugs Act was passed, empowering state governments to make rules permitting and regulating the inter-state import and export from the territories under their administration, the transport, possession and sale of manufactured drugs which included medicinal cannabis.
By India had both signed and ratified the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and then in the cultivation, possession, use and consumption of any mixture of cannabis came to be prohibited with severe penalties by the national government of India under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, Today, although cannabis continues to be an integral element of cultures in India, the laws seem to have succeeded in discouraging its use.
The cultural use of cannabis is widespread throughout Africa. While the plant is not indigenous to Africa, several traditions of religious, medical and recreational cannabis smoking have developed since its introduction to Africa over six centuries ago. Aside from Egypt, where cannabis has been grown for over a thousand years due to the influence of India and Persia, the first archaeological evidence of cannabis in central and southern parts of Africa comes from 14 th century Ethiopia where two ceramic smoking-pipe bowls containing traces of cannabis were discovered.
While Arab traders and North Africans brought cannabis to the central and southern parts of Africa, they did not import techniques of psychoactive cannabis use.
Eventually, by , the Hottentots learned the art of smoking. There are several examples of how cannabis took on different prominent symbols in African tribes. Some homes actually have kif rooms, where family groups gather to sing, dance, and relate histories based on ancient cultural traditions. A researcher visiting the Congo, discovered that around , the King of the Balubas tribe, which had conquered several tribes near it with similar rituals,.
Thus for the Balubas tribe, cannabis took on ritualistic importance on state and feast days and as an evening pastime. The Bashilenge was a religious cult that developed out of several small clubs of hemp smokers who had their own plots of land for the cultivation of hemp.
Each tribesman was required to participate in the cult and show his devotion by smoking as frequently as possible. They attributed universal magical powers to hemp, which was thought to combat all kinds of evil and they took it when they went to war and when they travelled. The hemp pipe assumed a symbolic meaning for the Bashilenge somewhat analogous to the significance that the peace pipe had for American Indians. No holiday, no trade agreement, no peace treaty was transacted without it.
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